Bullying has been defined as having 3 elements: aggressive or deliberately harmful behavior (1) between peers that is (2) repeated and over time and (3) involves an imbalance of power, for example, related to physical strength or popularity, making it difficult for the victim to defend himself or herself. Behavior falls into 4 categories: direct-physical (assault, theft), direct-verbal (threats, insults, name-calling), indirect-relational (social exclusion, spreading rumors), and cyberbullying. The 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey of students in grades 9 through 12 in the United States indicated that during the 12 months before the survey, 23.7% of girls and 15.6% of boys were bullied on school property, 21.0% of girls and 8.5% of boys were electronically bullied, and 8.7% of girls and 5.4% of boys did not go to school 1 day in the past 30 because they felt unsafe at or to or from school. Studies have focused on 3 groups: those who were victims, those who were bullies, and those who were both victims and bullies (bully/victims). (As cited by Benjamin Shain and COMMITTEE ON ADOLESCENCE. Suicide and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents. Pediatrics 2016;138; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-1420 originally published online June 27, 2016.)
Klomek et al found a clear relationship between both bullying victimization and perpetration and suicidal ideation and behavior in children and adolescents. Females were at risk regardless of frequency, whereas males were at higher risk only with frequent bullying. A review by Arseneault et al cited evidence that bullying victimization is associated with severe baseline psychopathology, as well as individual characteristics and family factors, and that the psychopathology is made significantly worse by the victimization. Being the victim of school bullying or cyberbullying is associated with substantial distress, resulting in lower school performance and school attachment. Suicidal ideation and behavior were greater in those bullied with controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and depressive symptomology. Suicidal ideation and behavior were increased in victims and bullies and were highest in bully/victims. Similar increases in suicide attempts were found comparing face-to-face bullying with cyberbullying, both for victims and bullies. (As cited by Benjamin Shain and COMMITTEE ON ADOLESCENCE. Suicide and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents. Pediatrics 2016;138; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-1420 originally published online June 27, 2016.)
Bullying predicts future mental health problems. Bullying behavior at 8 years of age was associated with later suicide attempts and completed suicides, although among boys, frequent perpetration and victimization was not associated with attempts and completions after controlling for conduct and depressive symptoms. Among girls, frequent victimization was associated with later suicide attempts and completions even after controlling for conduct and depressive symptoms. High school students with the highest psychiatric impairment 4 years later were those who had been identified as at-risk for suicide and experiencing frequent bullying behavior. Copeland et al found that children and adolescents involved in bullying behavior had the worst outcomes when they were both bullies and victims, leading to depression, anxiety, and suicidality (suicidality only among males) as adults. Assessment for adolescents with psychopathology, other signs of emotional distress, or unusual chronic complaints should include screening for participation in bullying as victims or bullies. (As cited by Benjamin Shain and COMMITTEE ON ADOLESCENCE. Suicide and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents. Pediatrics 2016;138; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-1420 originally published online June 27, 2016.)
IINII uses a revolutionary Design Thinking process to help your school community gain an understanding of one’s sense of self, as well as developing an understanding of students’ and parents’ values; having an understanding of one’s values matters because research has shown that it is linked to better well-being, less stress, and increased confidence in one’s ability to succeed. IINII has extensive experience building and using an Indigenous research paradigm.
Understanding students’ values can be developed with culturally sustaining practices that reflect a student’s identity and experience. Particularly helpful is focusing efforts on cultural competence and relevance and providing opportunities for students to practice bridging differences between diverse identities in a safe environment. To learn how you can create a dynamic youth-centered environment that honors the unique values of your students and parents, visit our website at www.iinii.org, or contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org or 1800-507-2502.